The meaning of the compound complements of direction
A complement is a word or a phrase that is usually placed after a verb or an adjective to provide additional meaning or information.
Directional verbs followed by directional complements 来 and 去 form compound directional complements. They are also placed after the main verb to clarify its direction.
The first part of the complement shows the direction of the action. For example: up, down, and pass by. The second one indicates a movement going towards the speaker or going away from the speaker.
Directional verbs include:
进 出 上 下 回 过 起
Another name for compound complements is complex complements.
进来 — the movement is in and towards the speaker: "come in".
拉进来 (to where the speaker is)
进去 — inwards movement and away from the speaker: "go in".
拉进去 (from where the speaker is)
出来 — outwards movement towards the speaker: "come out"
走出来 (to where the speaker is)
出去 — outwards movement away from the speaker: "go out".
走出去 (from where the speaker is)
上来 — upwards movement towards the speaker: "come up".
跳上来 (to where the speaker is)
上去 — upwards movement away from the speaker: "go up".
跳上去 (from where the speaker is)
下来 — downwards movement towards the speaker.
爬下来 (to where the speaker is)
下去 — downwards movement away from the speaker: "go down".
爬下去 (from where the speaker is)
回来 — movement coming back towards the speaker.
回去 — movement is going back away from the speaker.
回来 and 回去 are often combined with such verbs:
买 寄 送
过来 — movement is towards the speaker.
飘过来 过去 — movement is away from the speaker’s position.
飘过去 起来 — indicates an action moving upwards.
The complement 起去 does not exist!
If the verb goes with the compound directional complements
If there is the adverbial modifier of place in the sentence, it is placed "inside" the complement: either after its first part or before 来/去.
The children ran into the room
háizi pǎojìn fángjiān lǐ lái le
The object is also placed "inside" the complement:
Bring me the menu, please
qǐng gěi wǒ náguò càidān lái
If the verb denotes a completed action, then the object is placed only after the entire verb and its complement.
The suffix 了 , if present, is also placed after the entire verb.