The two pronouns 每 and 各 have a similar meaning “every, each”.
Sometimes they are interchangeable. For example, to express the phrase “every guest” we can use either 每 or 各:
However in most of cases 每 and 各 are used in different contexts because they have slightly different shades of meaning.
The pronoun 每 refers to a group and emphasizes wholeness. It is used when each unit of the same group has a common feature.
Every flower is beautiful
měi zhòng huā dōu hěn hǎokàn
The pronoun 各 is used more for referring to individuals. It can be translated as “every single one”. It is often used when each unit of a group is different from the others.
Each flower has its own characteristics
gè zhòng huā yǒu gè de tèsè
The parts of speech that 每 is used with
We can state 每 before nouns. In this case, we often state the adverb 都 after a noun and before a predicate to summarize what was said before.
Remember that we must use a measure word between 每 and the noun.
Everyone has a dream
měi ge rén dōu yǒu zìjǐ de mèngxiǎng
He visited his parents in his hometown every week
tā měi zhōu dōu qù lǎojiā kàn fùmǔ
However with some nouns we do not use a measure word at all. For example, with nouns such as:
天 周 年
In this case, we state a noun right after the word 每:
每天 — every day;
每周 — every week.
We also use 每 with a numeral.
Each of her paintings has a peculiarity about them
tā de měi yì fú huà yǒu qítè
Ukraine holds presidential elections every four years
wūkèlán měi sì nián jǔxíng yī cì zǒngtǒng xuǎnjǔ
We also can use 每 as an adverb. In this case, we should state it before a verb. It’s translated as “every time”, “all the time”.
In this construction, the verb should be followed by a numeral 一 with a measure word.
He pauses after almost every word he says
tā jīhū měi shuō yí jù huà jiù tíngxiàlai
The parts of speech that 各 is used with
We can state 各 before nouns. We should use 各 with collective nouns (which denote a group of objects).
We rarely use a measure word after 各. When we do use a measure word, it should be one of the following:
个 similar to the English article “a”, “an”
位 a measure word for addressing a person in a formal way
Athletes from each team showed off their abilities
gè cānsài duì de yùndòngyuán dōu biǎoxiànchū zìjǐ de nénglì
She went to every store looking for bargains
tā dào gè shāngdiàn sōuluó piányihuò
We often use 各位 when referring to a group of people, or when listing each person in the group.
Happy New Year everyone!
gè wèi xīnnián kuàilè
Please take your seats
gè wèi qǐng zuò
The phrase 各种 has the meaning of “various”, “all kinds of”.
He's into all kinds of art
tā duì gè zhǒng yìshù yǒu xìngqù
There are various vaccines for Coronavirus
zhēnduì guānzhuàng bìngdú yǒu gè zhǒng de yìmiáo
Remember the set expression 各种各样
We should state the expression 各种各样 before nouns. We should also state the particle 的 between them.
I still have all kinds of CDs at home
wǒ jiālǐ háishì yǒu gèzhǒng gèyàng de guāngpán
In some cases, 各 can be an adverb and it can be stated before a verb.