There are four of these types of sentences:
1) with nouns.
Consists of a single noun or a short phrase with a noun.
2) with verbs.
Mostly, such sentences are composed of predicates with object or verb collocations. Single verbs are used rarely.
3) with adjectives.
Composed of a single adjective or a word combination with an adjective.
4) composed of interjections or sound imitation.